Japanese made easy!

                                        Lesson 7~
                                         -tai want

 Tai たいis used at the end of verb.  The form of the verb is the masu ます stem. The verb stem that you would use before masu ます. (formal verb link)

たべますTabemasu - I eat ----> たべたいTabetai desu - I want to eat.

 Tai たい is acutually an i adj (Copula i adj link)

So please follow the correct rules concerning i adj.  (i adj link)  

 

あそびますAsobimasu --> あそびたいAsobitai - I want to play

いきますIkimasu --> いきたいIkitai - I want to go

あいますAimasu --> Aあいたいitai - I want to meet him

ますMimasu --> みたいMitai - I want to see

You see?  The stem is the same, all you do is replace masu ますwith tai たい.  Though to make it formal you need to add desuです.  As the lessons progress please refer to older lessons if you dont remember certain forms or formality rules. I'll add a link when ever i can. ^^ <3   

                                            -tachi

 Tachi たち is what you can add to "I", "you", someones name etc, to make it plural. 

わたし Watashi - I            わたし たち Watashi + tachi = Us ( Other people and I )

あなた Anata - You      あなた + たちAnata + tachi - You guys, (you and other people)

Adding tachi たち make it mean, "and others".  Its not really specific.  

さくら たち Sakura tachi - Sakura and people who are with Sakura.

                                   Question no, nano

 Personally I don't really like formal Japanese.. And I don't feel I should just teach formal.  I do like adding both formal and informal though.

  Adding no, nano の, なの at the end of certain sentences will make them into questions~.  But whether you add no, or nano なの depends on what the last word of the sentence is.  If it is a verb or an i adj you just add no, if a noun or a na adj you add na no なの. Adding no, nano の,なの is used for informal situations.. 

                                         Verb       いく のIku no? - Are you going?

                           I adj       それ は たのしい の Sore ha tanoshii no? - Is that fun?

                    Noun       これ は ちょう なの Kore ha chou nano? - Is this a butterfly?

          Na adj    ほうせき は だいじ なの Houseki ha daiji nano? - Are jewels important?

                                              No ni
 No ni のに means "even though" when i hear no ni のに I always link it with the word sekkaku, せっかくwhich means that someone worked really hard to do or get something.
 
せっかくがんばったのにSekkaku ganbatta no ni - Even though I worked hard and did my best. 
 
 せっかくここまできいたのにSekkaku koko made kiita no ni - Even enough I've come this far.
  
  It kinda seems that when no ni のに is used its like a sad disappointing case.    
 
                                        Verb + no

To make an dictionary form verb active as like doing it.  you add "no" to the dictionary form. 

If you want to say, "are you eating" you can say

たべるのですか Taberuno desu ka? - Are you eating

You can also use it in a sentence too

しゃしん を とるの は たのしい です Shashin o toruno ha tanoshii desu - Taking pictures is fun

べんきょう するの は きらい です Benkyou suruno ga kirai desu - I dont like studying  

                                       If: nara, ra

 You add "nara なら" after a present tense word, you cant use it after any masu ます forms.  If the word happens to be past tense then you just add "ra" at the end.  

そこでおよぐならSoko de oyogu nara - What if I swim there?

くまはおおきいならKuma ha ookii nara - What if the bear is big?

                            わたしにはそのひとがだいじなら Watashi ni ha sono hito ga daiji nara?            - What if that person is important to me?

 

あそこにあるのはねこならAsoko ni aru no ha neko nara - What if there is a cat over there?

                                  Kono, Sono, Ano

These words are used a lot in Japanese.  They all have a little different meaning based on the situation.  How ever the cases may change the location use of the words stay the same.

The 1st example is Kono, Sono, Ano この、その、あの.  Please remember how these are defined in space.  When you say Kono この it means "This" as in right near you.  Sono その also means that, but its not right near you, its still close but its not like in your hand close. Finally there is Ano あの which still means that.  But its like That over there.  This word shows that an object is far away not close to you at all.  

I drew a picture ^^; and I'm using it to show you about kono sono anoこの、その、あの.  I wrote on my drawing so its a little harder for people to steal lol =0..

      Kono この is very close as in your hand, sono その is a littler farther away, and ano あの is kinda really far, it may be even farther than I could show but.  Its not so important for a exact distance, only if you have the basic idea. 

このーそのーあの Kono - Sono - Ano (people or things)

これーそれーあれ Kore - Sore - Are (people or things)

Must use a particle after "kore, sore, are" 

ここーそこーあそこ Koko - Soko - Asoko (here, there [places])

こちーそちーあち Kochi - Sochi - Achi (over here, over there)

こうーそうーああ Kou - Sou - Aa (Like this, like that)

   こいつーそいつーあいつ Koitsu - Soitsu - Aitsu (This person, that person)

こうなにーそうなにーあんなに Kounani - Sounani - Annani (This much, that much)

Now that you have an idea about the locations... Let me give you examples :3

この ひと は やさしい です Kono hito ha yasashii desu - This person is nice

これ は はな ですKore ha hana desu - This is a flower

ここでおよぐ Koko de oyogu - I swim here

こち は たのしい です Kochi ha tanoshii desu - Its fun over here ^^

こう いう の は いい です Kou iu no ha ii desu - Things like this are good

こいつ は いや な ひと Koitsu ha iya na hito - This person is awful

こうんなに すき ですKounnani suki desu - I love him this much

 Even though I used the closes one in all the examples, the only difference is space.

                                            Kedo

 I really like this word Kedo けど.  I think it is one of my favorite words.  It means, "but; however".  Though this word has many layers I feel.  Its not the same as the word "demoでも".

Kedo けど is a very soft word.  It can make things that would normally seem a little harsher, softer.  

いきたくないけど Ikitakunai kedo - I don't really want to go

にんじんがきらいですけど Ninjin ga kirai nan desu kedo - I really do hate carrots

When you say it like this it does not mean you are giving into the other person.. Its just a better way to refuse.   

Though the actual definition of the word is but;however, in this case I would not even use those words in the translation.  Especially when your disagreeing with someone, or saying the opposite the use of kedo けど makes what you say less strong and offensive.  Its almost a shy word I think.  Your not going to get a good definition of this word from a dictionary.  Words are more than definitions.  I'm sure people may try and fight me on my position.  But words are more like feelings and not definitions or translations.    

Of course I guess you can use it as but;however as well.  I guess the difference would be,  In the case above you dont say anything after it like you would normally if you said "but" like the use of "demo でも ". When you do say stuff after it.

            うまく でき ない けど、やりたい なん です Umaku deki nai kedo, yaritai nan desu    - I cant do it well but, i want to try.

 If you are also not sure about something, or if you are confused.. or if you don't really know what to say.  

いきたい です けど Ikitai desu kedo.. - I really wanna go but..

そう の こと ない です けど Sou no koto nai desu kedo -  Thats not really it but..

It really does not make too much sense in English, because when we use but at the end of a sentence we generally write something more.  However English and Japanese cant always parallel.  They are different languages.  Though for me i end up using but at the end of a sentence because I've studied Japanese so long lol.  Hehe ^^ My mind gets into Japanese made and I cant speak English well.. Makes writing papers hard.  I seem to forget how an American would say thing.. So my English comes out weird.  I must be careful when doing professional papers ^^.   

                                        n desu, n da

 N desu, n da んです、んだ.  This is what you put at the end of a sentence.  Just as you would put desu です .  However with the use of adding the "n" you can use it after verbs and i adjs too.  I'm not sure what the n classifies as but, you can use the copula with it.  Before I go into more detail of purpose let me tell you its uses.  

         Do you remember in what cases the copula could be used?  Its only for nouns and na adj.  Though adding the n you can use it for other too.  My point is...

  When you use it with nouns or na adj you need to put "na" before the n.  

Noun

ねずみなんです Nezumi nan desu - Its a mouse

Na adj

だいじなんだ Daiji nan da - Its important.

 For verbs and i adj you just use the regular n desu んです.

Verb

いくんです Iku n desu - I'm going

I adj

いそがしいんだ Isogashii n da - I'm busy

 When using it with a verb you must use the dictionary form.  You cant use the masu ますform

Ok now I will tell you when to use this.You use n desu, n da んです、んだ When your asking something or telling someone something based on a certain situation.  You use it based on some information.  

For example if your at your friends house and they look busy, you can ask.. Isogashii n desu ka? いそがしいんですか Are you busy?  This does not change the meaning at all, however its a more friendly way to ask.  Some times if you don't use n desu んですyou can make people feel uncomfortable, like you are interrogating them lol =o.  Least that's what a Japanese person said ^^:

You can also you it when you with someone and they are not eating anything even though its dinner time.  You ask them why they are not eating with n desu んです, or If your on the phone with a friend and they don't seem to be paying attention well.  you can ask them if they are busy.  they can also answer you using n desu んせす.  I heard sometimes when a conversation is used with n desu んせすthat often it continues with n desu back and forth :3

                             どうしてがっこうにいかないんですか Doushite gakkou ni ikanai n desu ka?         - Why are you not going to school?

わたしはびょうきなんです Watashi ha byouki nan desu - I'm sick

                                  Desu kara, da kara

There are 2 cases in which desu kara, da kara ですから, だからcan be used. 

In the 1st case it comes at  the end of the sentence and means "because"

なんでねこほんをかったの Nande neko hon o katta no? - Why did you buy a book about cats?

ねこはすきですから Neko ga suki desu kara - Because I like cats

Using the same example but with the second case is next.

なんでねこほんをかったの Nande neko hon o katta no? - Why did you buy a book about cats?  

                   ねこがすきですから、ねこほんをあったNeko ga suki desu kara, neko hon o katta     - I like cats so I bought a book about cats

In the second case it really emphasizes what is said before. It really shows that it is  the reason. So you need to write something after the desu karaですから.  

The best way for you to understand the differences is to hear it.  Click on the underlined text for audio.  But also remember the uses please. 

                                         Kara;made

 Kara から means from and made まで means until.  You can use this with time well. 

  わたしは1じから3じはんまでテレビをみるWatashi ha 1 ji kara 3 ji han made terebi o miru - I'm watch tv from 1:00-3:30.

                          ねえさんがあらわれまでここにいるNeesan ga araware made koko ni iru           -Im going to stay here till my older sister comes.

                                            Shika

 Shika しか means like "only, all but, just" Shika しか is only the stated things or person and nothing more.

すししかかってない Sushi shika kattenai - I could only buy sushi

ごじゅうえんしかないです Go juu en shika nai desu - There is only 50 yen

あなたしかできない Anata shika dekinai - Only you can do it. 

                                             Hoka

 I'm pretty sure that hoka ほか needs a particle after it, like "no", or "ni ". 

Hoka ほか means other than, any other.

ほかにだれかがありますか Hoka ni dareka ga arimasu ka? - Is there anyone else here? 

ほかのことがすきですか Hoka no koto ga suki desuka? - What other things do you like?