Japanese made easy!

                                         Lesson 3


Particles are  little Japanese words that link words together that makes a sentence make sense.

Understanding these particles will help you form sentences.


^^ i made you flash cards and a quiz <333


Japanese particles flashcards from pretymisty14 on FlashcardDB.



There is a problem with the quiz lol... Its good and bad! Some answers repeat themselves but there is only 1 correct answer. for ex if your choices are, ni ni ni mo.  and the answer is ni and you choose the wrong ni it may say you got the answer wrong but.. You didn't x3 Its good if the answer is not ni, then you just choose mo lol =0... oops.. x3 Lest i think there is only 1 correct answer... x33 o wells =D it just makes the test easyer >=D

 lol I just took the quiz and got one wrong D=!! loll and I made the darn quiz <<;;When answering questions its best to make sure you look out for key words.  Like toward =x...oppsies >.<;


Ha marks the topic.  It always comes after the topic. Ha emphasis what comes after it. 

Ha is the most often particle used.

I like to think of ha as "is/am" etc.

It doesn't always work, but it's a huge help to think of it this way. 

Remember when I was telling you how to introduce yourself? In lesson 2, I used "ha"

1. わたし は さくら です Watashi ha Sakura desu- I am Sakura

 2. おなまえ は なん です か Onamae ha nan desu ka? -What is your name?
Ha shows us what is important in the sentence.   in # 1 Sakura comes after the ha so Sakura is being emphasized.  Your telling people you name is Sakura
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Ga indicates "active" subject.  It emphasis what comes before it. 

Ga is used in the same place as ha, but just at different times.   

みみ が いたい です mimi ga itai desu- Ear is hurting

Since the mimi is before ga, mimi is emphasized.

Using ha as opposed to ga can also be used in showing contrast. 

     Sakana ga suki desu kedo, ringo ha kirai desu. - I like fish, but i hate apples. 

 かな が すき です けど、りんご は きらい

Just after you say you like fish, then you say you hate apples you switch the ga to ha to show the contrast.

 If your confused of the uses don't feel bad,even actual Japanese people mess them up sometimes.  to use them perfectly in grammar is hard.

Though there are words that can only be used with ga.   

Questions words only work with ga, not ha


                                                 だれ                            dare - who   

                                                 いつ                itsu - when  

                                                 どこ                      doko - where

                                                 なん/なに            nan/nani- what                 

                                                  どちら                  dochira- which, who

                                                  どんな                       donna- what kind of  

                                                  どれ                      dore - which   dono- which                                                                 

                                        なに が あります か      Nani ga arimasu ka? - what is there? 

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Describing word + no + word being described

Shows possession 

わたしのねこです Watashi no neko desu - My cat        

This shows that I own the cat.

 One word describe another word

ねこのほんです Neko no hon desu - A book about cats    

  The word "neko" describes what kind of book it is.

Compound word.

にほんのりょうり Nihon no ryouri - Japanese cooking 

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 Ni is a location marker/ target particle it tells  where something is, where something may go, where its directed to.  

 Going to/location

ex.  がっこうにいきます Gakkou ni ikimasu  - Im going to school     

      いぬはそとにいます Inu ha soto ni imasu  - The dog is outside.

Also ni  can mark an indirect object.

                     ex.  hanako san ni denwa shimashita - I called Ms Hanako on the phone.                  はなこ さん に でんわ を しました


はち じ に ねました hachi ji ni nemashita - I went to sleep at 8 O'clock


                          kinyoubi ni gakkou ga arimasen - I have no school on Friday.                           いん うび に がっき が ありません 

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De tell where something takes place.

へや で べんきょう しました heya de benkyou shimashita - I studied in my bedroom. 

こえん で え を かきました koen de e o kakimashita - I drew a picture at the park

De also marks the means of doing something 

くるま で がっこう に いきます kuruma de gakkou ni ikimasu - I go to school by car

De also marks "among" thing.

        やさいでどちがいちばんおいしいですか Yasai de dochi ga ichiban oishii desu ka?            - Among all the vegetables which one is the most delicious 

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To is used to link two words together, like "and". When listing items and people for ex.  You must list them all if your going to use to... If not, you use "ya".. which we will be learning soon.  
      To means "and"  
   Ringo to ichigo to banana o kaimashita - I bought an apple, strawberry and bananas                         りんご と いちご と バナナ を かいました                              
To means "with"
Sakura to  gakkou ni ikimasu. -  I'm going to school with Sakura. 
さくら と がっこう に いきます 
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Mo means also/as well/too
ex.  If I said : わたし は ねこ ですWatashi ha neko desu- I am a cat
       Then you can reply: わたし も ねこ ですWatashi mo neko desu- I am also a cat
ex. わたし も いきますWatashi mo ikimasu- I'm going too
Only use "mo" after someone states a fact, and  it's true for you too.
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Ya is used to link two words, when listing 2 or more things, it kinda means "etc", "of the sort".  Not all objects need to be listed when using ya.  It means more than "and", and  it's fundamentally different than to.  With to you list everything, but with ya you don't.
 if: Heya ni nani ga arimasu ka? -  what do you have in your room


then: beddo ya tsukue ya hondana ya nezumi no petto ga arimasu -
I have a bed, desk, bookshelf, and a pet mouse etc. in my room 
Ex. Watashi ha anime ya manga ya hon ya gakkou ga suki desu
I like anime, mangas, books, and school.
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Yo is used at the end of a sentence, it is used while responding to questions,

give new information, and to emphasize something.


Ex.     がくせい です か Gakusei desu ka?- Are you a student?

                はい、がくせい です よ Hai, gakusei desu yo  - yes, I am a student.

Giving new information/ emphasis

わたし は にほん に いきました よ Watashi ha nihon ni ikimashita yo - I went to Japan!

                           Watashi ha mada pokemon ga suki desu yo - I still like pokemon                                                                     わたし は まだ ポケモン が すきですよ

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                                            Wo (o)
Wo marks the direct object.
object + o + verb 
おんがくをききました Ongaku o kikimashita - I listened to music 
ごはんをたべました gohan o tabemashita - I ate rice 
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                                            He (e)
He marks direction and sometimes can be interchangeable with ni when
indicating a location or to somewhere. 
  Tomodachi he tegami o kakimashita- I wrote a letter to my friend 
  ともだち へ てがみ を かきました
にほん へ いきますNihon he ikimasu - I'm going toward Japan
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Ka is a particle that comes at the end of a sentence to make it a question.

かいこ さん は がくせい です か Keiko san ha gakusei desu ka? - Is Keiko a student?

がっこう は たのしい です か Gakkou ha tanoshii desu ka? - Is school fun?
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                                  Ne/Nee ね/ねえ

Ne comes at the end of a sentence and issued to confirm things,
or said to see if someone agrees with you.
さかな は たかい ね Sakana ha takai ne - Fish is expensive isn't it
   あの ひと は かこいい ね Ano hito ha kakoii ne - That guy is cool isn't he ^-^ 
"ねえ"  is just "" but the "" sound is held for a beat longer. see Segments for details. However if has a slightly different use. "nee" is used to emphasize something.. for example..
   あおぞら は きれい ねえ Aozora ha kirei nee! - The blue sky so pretty isn't it!
So "nee" is stronger than "ne", it's a little more passionate I think. -^_^-
Also for the rough and informal people :D, I will tell you about ""!
Hehe, "na" has all the same uses as "ne" except rly it's informal ^_^

A guy once have me a very hard case agenst "na" and warning me of it's uses.. He
has never been to Osaka... Hehe, guys BE BOLD! use "na"! When your in Osaka you
need to use "na" or your not cool! >o< Don't waste your mind wonder what others
think. If your in Japan, people will appreciate the Japanese you know!
                         Okonomiyaki ha sugoku oishii na! - okonomiyaku is very delicious isn't it?     おこのみやき は すごく おいしい な
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                                         Ze/Zo ぜ/ぞ
Ze/zo are used in informal male speech, they come at the end of a sentence and are used when emphasizing something.  They are like the use of yo, just informal. 
ごはん は できた Gohan  ha dekita zo! - The food is ready! 
ポケモン ゲット だぜ Pokemon getto da ze! - Get pokemon!
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